A recent NBER paper titled "Gender and the Dynamics of Economics Seminars" (.htm) reports analyses of audience questions asked during 462 economics seminars, concluding that “women are asked more questions . . . and the questions asked of women are more likely to be patronizing or hostile . . . suggest[ing] yet another potential explanation…

# Author: Uri Simonsohn

## [95] Groundhog: Addressing The Threat That R Poses To Reproducible Research

R, the free and open source program for statistical computing, poses a substantial threat to the reproducibility of published research. This post explains the problem and introduces a solution. The Problem: Packages R itself has some reproducibility problems (see example in this footnote [1]), but the big problem is its packages: the addon scripts that…

## [91] p-hacking fast and slow: Evaluating a forthcoming AER paper deeming some econ literatures less trustworthy

The authors of a forthcoming AER article (.pdf), "Methods Matter: P-Hacking and Publication Bias in Causal Analysis in Economics", painstakingly harvested thousands of test results from 25 economics journals to answer an interesting question: Are studies that use some research designs more trustworthy than others? In this post I will explain why I think their…

## [88] The Hot-Hand Artifact for Dummies & Behavioral Scientists

A friend recently asked for my take on the Miller and Sanjurjo's (2018; pdf) debunking of the hot hand fallacy. In that paper, the authors provide a brilliant and surprising observation missed by hundreds of people who had thought about the issue before, including the classic Gilovich, Vallone, & Tverksy (1985 .htm). In this post:…

## [80] Interaction Effects Need Interaction Controls

In a recent referee report I argued something I have argued in several reports before: if the effect of interest in a regression is an interaction, the control variables addressing possible confounds should be interactions as well. In this post I explain that argument using as a working example a 2011 QJE paper (.htm) that…

## [78c] Bayes Factors in Ten Recent Psych Science Papers

For this post, the third in a series on Bayes factors (.htm), I wanted to get a sense for how Bayes factors were being used with real data from real papers, so I looked at the 10 most recent empirical papers in Psychological Science containing the phrase "Bayes factor" (.zip). After browsing them all, I…

## [78b] Hyp-Chart, the Missing Link Between P-values and Bayes Factors

Just two steps are needed to go from computing p-values to computing Bayes factors. This post explains both steps and introduces Hyp-Chart, the missing link we arrive at if we take only the first step. Hyp-Chart is a graph that shows how well the data fit the null vs. every possible alternative hypothesis [1]. Hyp-Chart…

## [78a] If you think p-values are problematic, wait until you understand Bayes Factors

Would raising the minimum wage by $4 lead to greater unemployment? Milton, a Chicago economist, has a theory (supply and demand) that says so. Milton believes the causal effect is anywhere between 1% and 10%. After the minimum wage increase of $4, unemployment goes up 1%. Milton feels bad about the unemployed but good about…

## [77] Number-Bunching: A New Tool for Forensic Data Analysis

In this post I show how one can analyze the frequency with which values get repeated within a dataset – what I call “number-bunching” – to statistically identify whether the data were likely tampered with. Unlike Benford’s law (.htm), and its generalizations, this approach examines the entire number at once, not only the first or…

## [69] Eight things I do to make my open research more findable and understandable

It is now common for researchers to post original materials, data, and/or code behind their published research. That’s obviously great, but open research is often difficult to find and understand. In this post I discuss 8 things I do, in my papers, code, and datafiles, to combat that. Paper 1) Before all method sections, I…